The foundation is a vital part of any structure which transfers all types of loads to the ground.  There are several types of foundations used…

The foundation has received the all loads like dead load, live load, seismic load, etc., which is distributed to column & it transfer to the ground. The entire pressure of the structure should not greater than the safe bearing capacity of soil (SBC).

The minimum depth of shallow foundation formula has invented by Rankine. We shall see some of the building was constructed by the Shallow foundation (Isolated footing, Combined footing or RR Masonry) & some other deep foundation (Mat foundation, Pile foundation) Why?.