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Surveying Fundamentals

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Before starting any civil engineering work, regardless of branches, horizontal, vertical, and angular measurements of the project (plan or map) is required.  Surveying is used…

The data measurements gathered from surveying helps establish the plan and design of all civil engineering projects such as tunneling, irrigation, dams, reservoirs, waterworks,

Surveying is the art and science of civil engineering that determines the relative (comparable) position of points on, above or beneath the surface of the…