A structure built up by various components, and those all are designed to stabilize the structure. 

As you know, the load transfer process as slab > Beam > Column > Foundation. In all these areas, we use the same type of rods for the entire structure. It only differs from its orientation.

Difference Between Beam and Column

What is Beam? – A horizontal member of the structure that transfers the bending load is called “Beam.” According to the requirement, there are different types of beam used in construction.

Typical Beam

What is Column? – A vertical member of the structure that transfers the compression load is called “Column.”Typical Column

The column and beam both are transferring the stress to the foundation but only differ in orientation.

Take an example,

  • Take a rod and support it on two edges. Now place the load on top of it. It is known as a beam. It transfers the bending load created by the load placed on it.
  • Take the same rod. Hold it vertically and place a load on top of it. It is known as a column. It transfers the compressive load created by the load placed on it.

The column and beam both are transferring the stress to the foundation but there is a difference between beam and column by the way of the load transfer.

Beam and Column – Comparison Table

Spec Beam Column
Load Transferring A Beam transferring the load perpendicular to the longitudinal axis. A Column transferring the load parallel to the longitudinal axis.
Way of Load Resistance Basically, Beam resists the transverse load of the structure. Columns are resisting the compression load of the structure.
Shape Beam Shape can be square, rectangular, T /I shape. Column Shape can be square, rectangular, Circular and T /L shape.
Steel Consumption Minimum and maximum steel usage of  a beam is 0.25% to 2.5% respectively. Minimum and maximum steel usage of a column is 0.8% to 5% respectively.
Support Beams are supported by the column at both ends or one end. Columns are directly built from the foundation.
Classification The Beam is classified based on its support. Columns are classified as short column and long column based on the Slenderness Ratio.
Failure As above said the beam have received transverse load and it should not fail suddenly. The failure of the beam will show symptoms like crack or deflection. The failure of a column will not show any symptoms and it happens suddenly without any warning. The column failure will make fatal damages.

A Glance of Lintel

Typical Slab

A lintel is a horizontal member resting on the door or window opening to support the portion of the structure above it.

Besides, the function of a lintel is the same as a beam; it transfers the structure load to its supports.

Happy Learning 🙂

Author

Satheesh is a Civil Engineer who has more than 9+ Years of experience in residential construction. He is the author, editor of Civil Planets

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