The sand is an inevitable material in construction which is used in almost every activity such as concrete, plastering, PCC, backfilling, earth embankment & many other works.
The river sand naturally deposits in the riverbank, formed over many decades from the rock disintegrated and deposits on the river banks.
However, Due to the fast-growing urbanization, usage of river sand has rapidly increased over the past decade, but at the same time, that much of river sand is not available to supply.
Over-excavation of sand also leads to drying of groundwater in and around the particular areas, and it is very harmful to the environment.
Due to the non-availability of river sand & environmental impact, the usage of M sand in the construction industry started increasing day by day. In Fact utilization of M sand in construction is appreciated because it is eco-friendly.
What is Manufactured Sand?
The M sand is manufactured by crushing the quarry stones into required grain size & after washing, grading the crushed cubical shape with rounded edges, it turned as a construction material.
It is also known as Manufactured Sand.
How is M sand made? (Source)
As you know the sources of aggregates are igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks & metamorphic rocks which we discussed in the classification of aggregates topic.
The hard rocks that are obtained from the above process will be involved in the following process.
M Sand Manufacturing Process
- The hard rocks are blasted into medium-sized stones, and those stones are transported to the plant.
- Then the stones are washed and cleaned from dust & other impurities.
- The cleaned stones are placed into the primary crusher to crush the rocks into 40mm aggregates.
- After that, the 40mm aggregates are passed to the secondary crusher, which makes the 40mm aggregates into 20mm and below.
- Now the aggregates are screened and if found oversized aggregates again those aggregates are involved in crushing.
- After 1st stage screening, the aggregates are passed into a vertical shaft impactor to crush the aggregates into a cubical shape which is further reduced into below 4.75mm.
- Again it is passed through VSI if found oversized particles after second stage screening.
- Finally, the sand was washed and above 150micorns particles automatically removed from the screening process and ready to use in construction.
M Sand Properties
- Environmental Friendly – Since it has been manufactured artificially from the rock particles, it is less harmful to the environment compared to river sand.
- Quality of material – The quality of the sand can be controlled during its manufacturing process so the particles are well balanced in quality.
- Shape – The m sand having a cubical shape & grounded edges.
- Workability – Due to its shape & rough texture, it affects the workability of concrete.
- Strength – The concrete strength is very high in m sand compared to river sand used in concrete. Because it is manufactured from rock stones, it will have good compressive strength.
- Quality of concrete – We mostly experience concrete bleeding & segregation, which will lead to concrete crazing while pouring the concrete & Shrinkage. Also, honeycomb formation happens after the concrete hardens. Those quality issues will not occur when using the M sand in concrete.
- Impurities – The M sand does not contain the silt particles or other marine impurities like mica, silica, which affect the quality of concrete.
Is M sand suitable for construction?
The M Sand is no difference from river sand comparing quality and strength. Also sources. The only difference is that it is made artificially.
The M sand is perfect for construction, and it is classified into three types based on its construction activity.
Types of M sand
- M sand for concrete – The particle size above 4.75 mm will be used only for concrete as per IS code 383.
- P Sand – This type of sand is mainly used for plastering work in which particle sizes are less than 2.3 mm as per IS code 1542. It is also called P sand (Plastering sand).
- M sand for Brick Work – The brick or block masonry shall be laid by m sand which particle sizes are 3.5 mm as per IS code 2116.
Advantages and Disadvantages
- Economically available material
- High Strength
- No presence of silt and other marine particles
- No oversized particles.
- Quality can be controlled.
- It is available in three types which can be used for all construction works.
Drawbacks of M Sand
- Easy to adulteration
- Low workability due to its shape & rough texture.
- No moisture content unless washed by water.
Hope you enjoyed the topic. Happy Learning 🙂