We knew the importance of cement in construction. According to the requirement, cement has been manufactured in multiple types by altering its raw material and the manufacturing process.

In this post, we are going to discuss the different types of cement and its uses.

Main Types

We can categorise the cement into two broad categories such as,

  • Natural Cement
  • Artificial Cement

1. Natural Cement

Natural Cement is manufactured from crushed stone, with 20 to 40% clay content and remaining lime Natural Cementmixed carbonate magnesia. It holds brown in colour and sets rapidly when mixed with water.

USES – It is mostly used for the restoration of old buildings and monuments. Also used in modern construction for decoration purposes.

ADVANTAGE

  • Quick setting
  • Preserves stone
  • 100% Natural
  • Resistant to corrosive water

Artificial Cement

All the modern cement that we used in day to day life is known as artificial cement. The composition of the different materials produces artificial cement. Artificial cement is classified below.

2. Ordinary Portland Cement

Ordinary Portland cement is widely used to construct a normal structure where the special cement Ordinary Portland Cementproperties are not required. It produces the medium range of strength development and heat generation.  OPC cement is resisting the dry shrinkage and cracking, but it has less resistance to chemical attack.

USES – Most commonly used in construction. Different grades of OPC cement are available in the market according to the need.

ADVANTAGE

  • Great Resistance to Cracks and Shrinkage
  • Faster initial setting time than PPC
  • Less curing time compared to PPC

3. Rapid Hardening Portland Cement

Rapid hardening cement is also known as “High early strength cement” because it produces the strength Rapid Hardening Cementat the age of 3 days is equal to the 7 days strength of OPC cement with the same water-cement ratio

RHC is a special cement where high early strength is required. Another name for Rapid hardening cement is “High early strength cement”. It attains compressive strength in a short period.

A higher percentage of C3 S (Tricalcium silicate) has added to the cement to attain higher strength in a short period, and it is lighter than OPC.

USES – It is used to manufacture precast structures such as electrical poles, slabs. It used for highly strength requirement areas such as concrete pavements, roads where public transport happens frequently.

ADVANTAGE

  • Lighter than OPC cement.
  • It requires a short curing period.
  • It protects the structure from sulphate attack
  • Quick Setting time to complete the work faster.

4. Extra Rapid Hardening Cement

This cement has manufactured by adding 3% of calcium chloride with Rapid Hardening Portland Cement.

USES – Generally, this type of cement is used in waterlogged areas, bridges, dams. Because those structures required high strength required in a short period to continue the flow of construction activity.

ADVANTAGE – It gives 25% higher strength than RHP Cement in 2 days and 10 to 20% higher at 7 Days.

5. Low Heat Portland Cement

As the name suggests it produces less heat during hydration. It contains a low percentage (5%) of C3 S, and a high percentage (46%) of C2 S and remaining materials are the same as ordinary cement.

Due to its less compressive strength, it is not suitable to construct the structure. C3S – Hydrate Quickly; C2S – Hydrate Slowly

USES – Low heat cement is mainly used in mass concrete (Raft Concrete) work. Used to construct offshore concrete towers, gravity dams, retaining walls. Used in hot weathering conditions.

ADVANTAGE

  • Improves structure durability
  • Sulphate resistant
  • Minimize the thermal cracking due to low heat

 6. Sulphate Resisting Cement

The sulphate resisting cement is a type of cement that has low Tricalcium aluminate (C3A) & Tetracalcium Sulphate Resisting Cementalumino ferrite (C4AF) content and high Tricalcium silicate (C3S) content than the normal chemical composition of OPC. 

 It is expensive and not readily available because a particular raw material has required for manufacturing the cement.

USES – Mostly sulphate resisting cement is used to construct the underground structure, sewer line, Coastal works, and the structure near the sea. Used to construct cooling towers, Treatment plants, Piling works.

ADVANTAGE

  • Protects the structure from sulphate attack.
  • High durability under aggressive conditions.
  • Low heat development during hydration.

7. Waterproof Cement

The waterproof cement is manufactured by adding water repellent agents and some metal like Ca, Al with ordinary or RHC cement. 

USES – Waterproof cement is used to construct the water retaining structure like dams, tanks.

ADVANTAGE

  • Protects the structure from deterioration by water.
  • Reduces maintanance

8. High Alumina Cement

High alumina cement is the same as rapid hardening cement, which attains ultimate strength in a short period. It has manufactured from bauxite and limestone. It contains 35% of Alumina and a balance of lime components. HAC seems to be the colour of chocolate.

USES – It can be used in the construction of a chemical plant or storage yard, marine construction.

ADVANTAGE

  • It is not affected by frost
  • It does not expand during the setting
  • It achieves high strength in a short period.

9. Quick Setting Cement

Quick setting cement contains less percentage of gypsum and Aluminium Sulphate. The setting time of this cement was accelerated by Aluminium Sulphate Al2(SO4)3.

USES – Quick Setting cement is used in waterlogged areas such as underwater construction, river bridges, piers.

ADVANTAGE

  • Initial Setting Time – 5 Minutes and Final setting time – 30 Minutes.
  • It can be used in rainy and cold weathering conditions.

10. Slag Cement

Portland Slag Cement is a hydraulic cement that is manufactured by grinding burnt furnace slag to suitable fineness and Portland Slag Cement 1mixed with ordinary portland cement in a particular ratio. It seems to be the colour of blackish grey.

The price of slag cement is lower than the OPC cement. It is not suitable for standard RCC structure because it has less early strength.

USES – Generally, slag cement is used in seawater construction because of its good sulphate resistance capacity. It is used in mass concrete works such as pile, dam, raft, concrete road & precast products.

ADVANTAGE

  • Gives a smooth finish
  • Low cost compared to OPC 
  • Lower evolution of heat

11. White CementWhite Cement

It is a pure form of OPC. White cement only differs from the ordinary portland cement by its colour. It has a clean & bright colour because of its manufacturing process. It was manufactured by the raw material iron oxide and manganese oxide, adding with OPC.

USES – It is mostly used for decorative purposes (false ceiling). It is used in architectural work because of its good aesthetic values. It is also used as sealant and grouting material for floorings.

12. Acid Resistant Cement

Acid-resistant cement is manufactured by mixing of acid-resistant aggregates like quartz and sodium fluosilicate (Na2) with ordinary cement.

USES – ARC cement is widely used in the chemical industry.

13. Coloured Cement

Coloured cement is manufactured by adding 5 to 15% of suitable pigment while grinding the cement. 

Example

Iron Oxide (Fe2O3 )- Red colour

Chromium Oxide (Cr2O3) – Green Colour

Cobalt Oxide (CoO) – Blue Colour

Uses – It is used for the decorative purpose where multiple color sealants needed such on a false ceiling.

14. Expanding Cement

To produce the Expanding cement, the expanding material added with ordinary cement. It increases in volume once they set.

USES – It is used in the construction of a water storage structure. It is used where the shrinkage and cracks are need to be avoided. It is used in the construction where the concrete needs to create pressure on other structures.

ADVANTAGE

  • Helps to prevents leakage
  • Seals small cracks
  • Stronger than Portland Cement

15. Portland Pozzolana Cement

Pozzolana is an artificial material having silica and alumina. It is having excellent tensile strength and also economically reasonable. Mostly PPC cement is used in the construction of sewage works.

USES – It is used in marine construction & hydraulic structures. It is used in mass concrete works such as pre & post-tensioned structures.

ADVANTAGE

  • Eco-friendly
  • Made of recycled materials
  • Less Carbon monoxide emission

16. Super sulphated Cement

The super sulphated cement has manufactured by the combination of granulated slag, calcium sulphate, and portland cement. It produces less heat of hydration during the setting time.

Super sulphated cement is used in the construction of seawater related works.

17. Masonry Cement

This cement has manufactured by the raw material of Portland cement, gypsum, and limestone with water repellent agents. Typically its compressive strength is 2.5Mpa in 7 days.

USES – It is mainly used for mortar purposes.

IS Code for Cement

We listed out the IS code for the respective cement.

Name of the Cement IS Code
OPC cement IS 269
Rapid Hardening Cement IS 8041
Low Heat Cement IS 12600
Sulphate Resistant Cement IS 12330
High Alumina Cement IS 6452
Super Sulphate cement IS 6909
Slag Cement IS 455
White Cement IS 8042
PPC Cement IS 1489
Masonry Cement IS 3466

Happy Learning 🙂

Author

Satheesh is a Civil Engineer who has more than 9+ Years of experience in residential construction. He is the author, editor of Civil Planets

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